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    Add as Friendevolution of computers

    by: ankit

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    1 : Presentation on History and evolution of computers By – ANKIT SINGH BAGHEL ROLL NO. - 7
    2 : HISTORY OF COMPUTERS Charles Babbage invented computer and was the first person to introduce the idea of "programmable machines". Charles Babbage hardly imagined that his distaste for human errors would one day result in inventions such as desktop computers and laptop computers. His design was meant to eliminate differential errors involving mathematical tables, it was called 'difference engine'. Difference engine was to calculate the finite differences, and thereby avoid the need for multiplication and division. But unfortunately, due to the huge size and the complexity of the design, Charles Babbage couldn't complete it
    3 : USES OF COMPUTES Computers, in general, are used in nearly all fields, today, like supermarkets, banks, etc. Here are some of the common uses of computers which may help in realizing the role of computers in daily life. Education With the development of technology, we find that long gone are the days when we used notebooks to write down our research paper or actually used the library for research. Today, you simply need to 'Google' to find any information you want. Secondly, e-learning (e-classrooms) or distance learning with computers is the latest and most practical modes of education today. Data Storage Talking about data storage, most of us have an enviable collection of music, movies, etc. on our PC. Storing and sharing of any kind of data is very easy and practical on computers. Secondly, storage options like the network-attached storage help in providing data access to a larger number of clients. Working Large number of people make use of computers for work purposes every day. Software engineers, writers, businessmen; employees in the field of telecommunication, banking, research, medicine, make use of computers daily. Secondly, telework or working from home is possible because of the PC. Therefore, we can say that the computer is also a source of income for a considerable number of people all over the world. Social Networking and Gaming Last, but not the least, very few of us would actually spend a day without Facebook or Twitter. secondly, do you know that the computer gaming industry generates billions in revenue every year? This is because of the popularity of computer games all over the world.
    4 : ABACUS:- Mesopotamians laid the foundation of the computer era. They discovered the earliest form of a bead and wire counting machine which came to be known as abacus. An abacus consists of beads divided into two parts which are movable on the rods of the two parts. Addition and multiplication of numbers is done by using the place value of the digits of the numbers. mechanical CALCULATING DEVICE
    5 : NAPIER’S ‘LOGS’ AND ‘BONES’:- JOHN NAPIER developed the idea of logarithm. He used logs to transform multiplication problem to addition problem. Napier’s logs later became the basis for a well known invention-the computing machine known as “slide rule”. He could perform both multiplication and division with these bones
    6 : ELECTROMECHANICAL CALCULATING DEVICE BABBAGE ‘S DIFFERENCE ENGINE:- Charles Babbage , a professor of mathematics , developed a machine called difference engine in the year 1822. This machine was used to calculate logarithmic tables to a high degree of precision. The machine was capable of polynomial evaluation by finite difference and its operation was automatic multishop operation.
    7 : Semi automatic caculating device Pascal's adding machine:- Blaise pascal , a french mathematician invented a machine in 1642 made up of gears which was used for adding numbers quickly. This machine was capable of adding and subtraction. It worked on clock work mechanism principle. The machine was capable of carry transfer automatically. The adding machine consisted of numbered toothed wheels having unique position values. The rotation of wheels controlled the addition and subtraction operations.
    8 : ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS The era of modern computing began with a flurry of development before and during World War II, as electronic circuit elements replaced mechanical equivalents, and digital calculations replaced analog calculations. Machines such as the Z3, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer, the Colossus computers, and the ENIAC were built by hand using circuits containing relays or valves (vacuum tubes), and often used punched cards or punched paper tape for input and as the main (non-volatile) storage medium.
    9 : 1st GENERATION COMPUTER It was the generation between 1949-1955. It is also called years of vacuum tubes. These computers consume huge amount of electricity. These computers were huge, slow, expensive, and often undependable. Large air conditioners were necessary due to generation of heat.
    10 : 2nd GENERATION COMPUTER Transistor replaced vacuum tubes Core memory developed. Computers became smaller. Programming in machine language as well as assembly language was done. Magnetic tapes and disks were used. First operating systems developed
    11 : 3rd GENERATION COMPUTER Although transistors were great deal of improvement over the vacuum tubes, they generated heat and damaged the sensitive areas of the computer. The Integrated Circuit(IC) was invented in 1958 by Jack Kilby. It combined electronic components onto a small silicon disc, made from quartz. More advancement made possible the fitings of even more components on a small chip or a semi conductor. Also in third generation computers, the operating systems allowed the machines to run many different applications. These applications were monitored and coordinated by the computer's memory.
    12 : 4th GENERATION COMPUTER Fourth Generation computers are the modern day computers. The Size started to go down with the improvement in the integerated circuits. Very Large Scale(VLSI) and Ultra Large scale(ULSI) ensured that millions of components could be fit into a small chip. It reduced the size and price of the computers at the same time increasing power, efficiency and reliability. "The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, took the integrated circuit one step further by locating all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and input and output controls) on a minuscule chip."
    13 : IDEAS FOR 5th GENERATION COMPUTER Commands to the fifth generation computers could be given by speech and visual recognition Superconductors- A superconductor is a conductor through which electricity can travel without any resistance resulting in faster transfer of information between the components of a computer. Parallel processing- Many processors are grouped to function as one large group processor. These computers will be based on artificial intelligence. These computers may also have ability to interface with biological systems such as a human brain.
    14 : TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT THAT LEAD TO FIRST COMPUTER In 1937, Claude Shannon showed there is a one-to-one correspondence between the concepts of Boolean logic and certain electrical circuits, now called logic gates, which are now ubiquitous in digital computers In 1939, John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry of Iowa State University developed the Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC), The Atanasoff-Berry Computer was the world's first electronic digital computer. The design used over 300 vacuum tubes and employed capacitors fixed in a mechanically rotating drum for memory. Though the ABC machine was not programmable, it was the first to use electronic tubes in an adder In 1939, development began at IBM's Endicott laboratories on the Harvard Mark I. Known officially as the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator
    15 : Thank You

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