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    forest in india


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    1 :
    2 : I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Ms. Kitty sharma as well as our principal Ms. Manisha vashistha who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic of Forest which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about so many new things I am really thankful to them. Secondly I would also like to thank my parents who helped me a lot in finishing this project within this time. I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge . THANKS AGAIN TO ALL WHO HELPED ME. Acknowledgement
    3 : Acknowledgement What is a forest ? Structure of a forest India’s rank in world forest Classification of forest Temperate forest Subtropical forest Mangrove forest Deciduous forest Evergreen forest Coniferous forest Thorny forest Contents
    4 : So, when we are having a presentation on forests in India . We shall know what a forest is ? The forest is a complex ecosystem consisting mainly of trees that buffer the earth and support a myriad of life forms.  What is a forest ?
    5 : The typical structure of forest contains four layers.  The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 33 to 66 m (100 to 200 feet) high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory that is roughly 9 to 15 m (30 to 50 feet) shorter than the canopy. The top layer of the understory is the sub-canopy which is composed of smaller mature trees, saplings, and suppressed juvenile canopy layer trees awaiting an opening in the canopy. Structure of a forest
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    7 : India ranks 10th in the list of most forested nations in the world with 76.87 million hectares of forest and tree cover. India’s forest cover accounts for about 23.44% of the total geographical area of the country. With nearly 173,000 villages classified as forest fringe villages, there is obviously India's rank in world forests….
    8 : The type of forest depends upon the amount of rainfall. Forests can be classified into the following types: Temperate forests Subtropical forests Mangrove forests Dry deciduous forests Moist deciduous forests Evergreen forests Coniferous forests Thorny forest Classification of forests
    9 : Temperate forests correspond to forest concentrations formed in the northern and southern hemisphere. Main characteristics include: wide leaves, big and tall trees and non seasonal vegetation. Temperate  forests occur in areas with distinct warm and cool season, which give it a moderate annual average temperature (3 to 15.6 °C). Annual rainfall is typically over 600 millimeters (24 inches) and often over 1500 millimeters (60 inches). Temprate forest
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    11 : TYPES Broad leaved forest Broad-leaved forests are found in the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats, along the Silent Valley. There is a marked difference in the form of the vegetation in the two areas. Pine Pine forests are found in the steep dry slopes of the Shivalik Hills, Western and Central Himalayas, Khasi, Naga, and Manipur Hills. The trees predominantly found in these areas are the chir, oak and pine. Subtropical forest
    12 : Subtropical forests are in areas outside of the strict equatorial region but either within or bordering the tropical zone and have more noticeable seasonal changes. Although temperatures may vary only slightly over a year, rainfall may be distributed unevenly so that wet and dry seasons occur. Subtropical forest location
    13 : The types of Fauna are Spider Monkey, Toucan, Poison-Arrow Frog, Macaw and Sloth. The types of flora are Bromeliads, Buttress root, Carnivorous plants, Epiphytes, Lianas, Orchids, Saprophytes, Stilt/prop roots and Strangler fig. Subtroical forest flora & fuana
    14 : Mangroves are woody, specialized types of trees of the tropics that can live on the edge, where rainforests meet oceans. Found on sheltered coastlines and river deltas, they grow in brackish wetlands between land and sea where other plants can't grow. They protect the coastline and prevent erosion by collecting sediment from the rivers and streams and slowing down the flow of water. There are about39.3 million acres of mangrove forests in the warm coastlines of tropical oceans all over the world. More than 10.5 million acres, or 27% of mangrove forests are found in Southeast Asia. Mangrove forest
    15 : Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and bio diverse wetlands on earth. Mangroves are marine tidal forests and they are most luxuriant around the mouths of large rivers and in sheltered bays and are found mainly in tropical countries where annual rainfall is fairly high. These plants have adapted to muddy, shifting, saline conditions. They produce stilt roots, which project above the mud and water in order to absorb oxygen. Mangrove forest extra…
    16 : A total 245 genera and 334 plant species were recorded by David Prain in 1903. The Sundarbans provides a unique ecosystem and a rich wildlife habitat. There is much more wildlife here than just the endangered Royal Bengal Tiger  Fishing Cats, Macaques, wild boars, Common Grey Mongooses, Foxes, Jungle Cats, Flying Foxes, Pangolins, and spotted deer are also found in abundance in the Sundarbans. Mangrove forest flora and fauna
    17 : Mangrove forest world distribution
    18 : Types of deciduous forest . Dry deciduous Moist deciduous Decidious forest
    19 : Dry deciduous forests are found throughout the northern part of the country except in the North-East. It is also found in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The canopy of the trees does not normally exceed 25 meters. The common trees are the sal, a variety of acacia, and bamboo. Dry deciduos forest
    20 : Dry decidious forest of ranthambore national park
    21 : Moist deciduous forests are found throughout India except in the western and the north-western regions. The trees have broad trunks, are tall and have branching trunks and roots to hold them firmly to the ground. Some of the taller trees shed their leaves in the dry season. There is a layer of shorter trees and evergreen shrubs in the undergrowth. These forests are dominated by sal and teak, along with mango, bamboo, and rosewood. Moist decidous forest
    22 : Moist decidous forest
    23 : An evergreen forest is a forest consisting entirely or mainly of evergreen trees that retain green foliage all year round.  In India, evergreen forests are found on the western slopes of the Western Ghats in States such as Maharashtra, Kerala and Karnataka. And also found in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, West Bengal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Some of the trees found in Indian Tropical Forests are rosewood, mahogany and ebony. Bamboo and reed are also common. Evergreen forest
    24 : Evergreen forest
    25 : The Coniferous Forest is a forest of Conifers . A Conifer is a tree that produces its seeds in cones.  Many softwood trees such as fir, pine and spruce are the main trees. The Pine tree is the most common example.  Conifer leaves conserve water with the thick, waxy layer that covers their leaves, also known as needles.  The vegetation in the Coniferous forest is small in size, but large enough to feed the vast herbivore population. Most of these animals survive the brutal winters by migrating or hibernating.   Average Annual Rainfall- 14-29.5 in. Coniferous forests
    26 : Coniferous forests in India
    27 : These are mostly found in the dry areas of the Indian desert and parts of the Deccan Plateau. The trees growing here have long roots and thorns and can live without water for a long time. The tree, which grows in these areas, is babul, kikar and wild palms. Thorny forest
    28 : Thank You MADE BY :- Abhay Sharma Class :- X Roll no 01

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