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    by: mohit

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    1 : Psychoanalytical Theory of Personality Theories of Personality Prepared by: Jim Messina, Ph.D.
    2 : Dr Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Oldest of eight children Married with 3 girls and 3 boys Physician-Biologist – Scientific oriented and Pathology oriented theory Jewish-anti-religion-All religion an illusion used to cope with feelings of infantile helplessness In Vienna Austria 78 years till 1938 Based theory on personal experiences Died of cancer of jaw & mouth lifelong cigar chain-smoker
    3 : Freud’s Psychoanalytic Approach: Model of personality development Philosophy of Human Nature Method of Psychotherapy Identified dynamic factors that motivate behavior Focused on role of unconscious Developed first therapeutic procedures for understanding & modifying structure of one’s basic character
    4 : Determinism Freud’s perspective Behavior is determined by Irrational forces Unconscious motivations Biological and instinctual drives as they evolve through the six psychosexual stages of life
    5 : Instincts Libido – sexual energy – survival of the individual and human race-oriented towards growth, development & creativity – Pleasure principle – goal of life gain pleasure and avoid pain Death instinct – accounts for aggressive drive – to die or to hurt themselves or others Sex and aggressive drives-powerful determinants of peoples actions
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    7 : The Structure of Personality THE ID — The Demanding Child Ruled by the pleasure principle THE EGO — The Traffic Cop Ruled by the reality principle THE SUPEREGO — The Judge Ruled by the moral principle
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    9 : Id Basic psychic energy and motivations Operates to demands of Pleasure Principle - strive to satisfy desires and reduce inner tension Sea around an Island
    10 : Ego Deals with real world Operates to demands of Reality Principle solves problems by planning & acting City Hall on island roots and foundation in sea - id
    11 : Superego Internalized social norm & moral forces pressing on and constraining individual action The “over-I” over ego Church on island roots and foundation in sea - id
    12 : Psychosexual Theory of Development Five Stages of Development Oral Stage Anal Stage Phallic Stage Latency Period Genital Stage
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    14 : The Development of Personality ORAL STAGE (First year) Related to later mistrust and rejection issues ANAL STAGE (Ages 2-4) Related to later personal power issues PHALLIC STAGE (Ages 4-6) Related to later sexual attitudes LATENCY STAGE (Ages 5-11) A time of socialization GENITAL STAGE (Ages 12-60) Sexual energies are invested in life
    15 : Oral Stage: Birth to 2 year Satisfy drive of hunger and thirst by breast or bottle If fixated after weaned: Over Dependency Over Attachment “Intake” of interesting substances/ideas
    16 : Anal Stage: 2- 4 years Id wants pleasure of reducing tension by defecating & urinating Toilet training – get superego to impose societal norms Self-control Holding back Freedom of action no control
    17 : Fixated at Anal Stage Enjoy bathroom humor-making messes-even of other people’s lives Neatness, order & organization and Obstinacy & Stinginess – Anal retentive- passive aggressive
    18 : Phallic Stage: 4 – 6 years Sexual energy focused on genitals Masturbation Differences between boys and girls Emerging sexual gender identity Personality fixed by end of this stage
    19 : Oedipus Complex A boy’s sexual feeling for his mother and rivalries with his father Psychological defenses against these threatening thoughts and feelings Form reaction pattern used throughout life Form personality through identification with father Diminish fear of castration-vicariously obtain mother through father
    20 : Castration Anxiety Unconscious fear of loss of penis and becoming like a female Fear of powerful people overcoming them Fear of revenge of the powerful people
    21 : Penis Envy A girl’s feelings of inferiority and jealousy Turns affections from mother to father since blame mom for no penis Although can’t have penis can have baby Wants to find a good man like her father and produce a baby
    22 : Latency Period 5-11 years of age Time between resolution of Oedipus complex and puberty Usually not possible for sexual urges to be directly expressed Sexual energies are channeled into school and friends
    23 : Genital Stage Adolescence - Adulthood Normal sexual relations Marriage Child-rearing
    24 : Ego-Defense Mechanisms Ego-defense mechanisms: Are normal behaviors which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality
    25 : Defense Mechanisms To protect the ego against the painful and threatening impulses arising from the id we distort the reality The processes that distort the reality for the ego are called defense mechanisms
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    27 : Repression Pushes threatening thoughts back into the unconscious Posttraumatic Stress Disorder- PTSD – Common with veterans and victims of sexual abuse False memories – suggested through psychotherapist intentionally or unintentionally
    28 : Reaction Formation Process of pushing away threatening impulses by overemphasizing the opposite in one’s thoughts and actions Examples: Jim Bakker & Jimmy Swaggart
    29 : Rationalization A mechanism involving post hoc logical explanations for behaviors that were actually driven by internal unconscious motives Explanation for behavior not even remotely related to the true causes
    30 : Limitations of Freud’s Work Pessimistic and deterministic approach to personality Pathology based theory Hydraulic model of psychic energy exaggerated No controlled studies-poor research Overemphasis on differences between men and women Unconcerned with interpersonal relations, individual identity and adaptation over one’s lifetime

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