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by: akkshay

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1 : Natural Disasters
2 : Classification of natural disaster
3 : Geological Hazards Natural hazards which are caused by such forces which originate below the surface of the earth are called geological hazards. Geological hazards can be classified as :-
4 : Earthquake The sudden, mild or violent shaking of a part of the earth is called an earthquake. It is caused where earth’s crust is weak. The sudden vibrations can cause extensive damage on the surface of the earth. Buildings get destroyed, trees can uproot and rails and roads can get damaged. They can get sudden permanent change in the river course. Sudden uplift and horizontal displacements of earth’s crust can sometime reveal new sources of minerals. Effect of Earthquake
5 : Safety measures during eathquake An early warning of an earthquake can help people to evacuate their homes and other buildings to minimize the risk of life. If one is indoors he should not run outside but move under tables and beds. One should keep away from windows, mirrors and things that can break and fall. To minimize the loss, earthquake resistant buildings should be constructed. Existing buildings may be strengthened structurally. If one is outdoors, he should move to an open area free from trees, poles etc.
6 : Earthquake prone areas: India World
7 : Volcanic Eruption A volcano is a vent in the earth’s crust through which molten rocks, gases and steam force their way out to the surface of the earth.
8 : Classification of Volcanoes Active Volcanoes: The volcanoes which posses the greatest threat of eruption are called active volcanoes. Example: Mt. Vesuvius. Dormant Volcanoes: Volcanoes have not erupted for a long time but can erupt again in the future. Example: Mt. Rainier. Extinct Volcanoes: Volcanoes which were active millions of years ago and have not erupted in historical period. Example: Devil’s Tower in Wyoming.
9 : Materials erupted from volcano can cause acid rain as well as landslides in nearby areas. Sometimes whole cities or towns are covered by thick lava sheets and are obliterated. In case of explosive eruptions sometimes whole islands are submerged or new islands rise in the adjacent oceans. Major volcanic eruptions give warning so proper steps should be taken to evacuate the nearby people. If different disaster response activities are taken in time like effective warning and careful planning, major loss of life and property can be avoided Effect of Volcanic Eruption Safety Measures
10 : Landslides The sudden movement of the soil and the weathered rock material down the slope due to force of gravity is called landslide.
11 : Types of landslides that flow
12 : Tsunami Tsunami, is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of large volume of water of water body, usually an ocean. Tsunamis are a frequent occurrence in Japan: approximately 195 events have been recorded. Tsunamis can devastate a costal region. Earth quake, volcanic eruptions, under water explosions and other disturbances below or above the water have the potential of generating tsunami.
13 : Safety measures during tsunami A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted, even if the magnitude and location of an earthquake is known.Geologists, oceangraphers and seismologist analyse each earthquake and based on many factors may or may not issue a tsunami warning. Regions with a high tsunami risk typically use tsunami warning systems to warn the population before the wave reaches land. Computer models can predict tsunami arrival, usually within minutes of the arrival time. Bottom pressure sensors relay information in real time. Based on these pressure readings and other seismic information and the seafloor's shape) and coastal topography the models estimate the amplitude and surge height of the approaching tsunami.
14 : Tsunami prone areas Formation of tsunami
15 : Weather associated hazards Natural hazards which are caused by such forces which originate and work above the surface of earth are called weather associated hazards. The main weather associated hazards are:-
16 : Cyclone Cyclones are violent storms, often of vast extent, characterized by high winds rotating about a calm centre of low atmospheric pressure. In North America it is known as ‘Hurricane’ but in Asia it is known as ‘typhoons’. Winds rotating around a low pressure Rising of surface temperature of sea level above 26 degree Celsius. Atmospheric pressure less than 1000mm. Causes of cyclone
17 : Measures to minimize the effect of cyclones In cyclone prone areas human settlements should not be too close to sea coast. Early warnings by authorities can help people to evacuate such low-lying areas which would be hit hard. Proper arrangements for providing all necessities of life should be made. People should not be allowed to go near the sea shore for any adventure
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19 : Cyclone prone areas
20 : Floods Floods are natural phenomena which occur in all river systems. When the discharge of water is greater than the capacity of river channel, due to rain or fast melting of snow in hill top areas, the excess water begin to flow over the river banks and submerges the adjacent areas. The can damage crops and livestock by simply washing them away. Equally damaging is its effect on houses and property. People are left homeless. Floods can leave to shortage of food and drinking water. Floods can also result to many water born diseases. Effect of floods
21 : Flood preparation If proper warning is given to the people, many lives and properties can be saved. In this situation television and radio helps the most. Proper arrangements should be made in advance for evacuating people to safer places. For those who are still caught in floods, food and water supply should be dropped to them. To check floods from entering certain parts of villages and towns, proper embankments should be made.
22 : Drought Drought may be defined as a period of unusually prolonged and dry weather in such areas where rain is otherwise normally expected. They adversely affect the crops and animal stock due to lack of fodder. Drought leads to the reduction in agricultural production, as the result poor sections of society suffer the most. People depending on animal husbandry have to suffer a lot due to lack of stock. As a result of drought mostly women and children have to suffer from malnutrition. Effect of drought
23 : How to cope with drought ? In drought prone areas water harvesting structures should be constructed. Small dams should be constructed to store water in sufficient quantities. People should practice afforestation or should plant more and more trees. Drought resistant crops should be developed.
24 : Presented by Raghav Monga Akshay Gupta Karan Gurnani Indrankur Sen Gupta Piyush Ranjan

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