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    Add as Friendorganizational structure, organizational structure ppt, business organizational structure

    by: Sherry

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    1 : Organizational Structure Organizational Architecture The organizational structure, control systems, culture, and human resource management systems that together determine how efficiently and effectively organizational resources are used.
    2 : Designing Organizational Structure Organizing The process by which managers establish working relationships among employees to achieve goals. Organizational Structure Formal system of task and reporting relationships showing how workers use resources. Organizational design The process by which managers make specific choices that result in a particular kind of organizational structure.
    3 : Factors Affecting Organizational Structure Figure 10.1
    4 : The Organizational Environment Strategy Different strategies require the use of different structures. A differentiation strategy needs a flexible structure, low cost may need a more formal structure. Increased vertical integration or diversification also requires a more flexible structure.
    5 : The Organizational Environment Technology The combination of skills, knowledge, tools, equipment, computers and machines used in the organization. More complex technology makes it harder for managers to regulate the organization.
    6 : The Organizational Environment Technology Technology can be measured by: Task variety: the number of new problems a manager encounters. Task analyzability: the availability of programmed solutions to a manager to solve problems. High task variety and low analyzability present many unique problems to managers. Flexible structure works best in these conditions. Low task variety and high analyzability allow managers to rely on established procedures.
    7 : Types of Technology Small Batch Technology Small quantities of one-of-a-kind products are produced by the skills of the workers who work together in small groups. Appropriate structure is decentralized and flexible. Mass Production Technology Automated machines that are programmed to make high volumes of standard products. Formal structure is the best choice for workers who must perform repetitive tasks.
    8 : Types of Technology Continuous Process Technology Totally mechanized systems of automatic machines. A flexible structure is necessary to allow workers to react quickly to unexpected problems. Information Technology (IT) Knowledge management The sharing and integrating of expertise within and between functions and divisions through realtime, interconnected IT that allows for new kinds of tasks and job reporting relationships.
    9 : The Organizational Environment Human Resources Highly skilled workers whose jobs require working in teams usually need a more flexible structure. Higher skilled workers (e.g., CPA’s and doctors) often have internalized professional norms.
    10 : Job Design Job Design The process by which managers decide how to divide tasks into specific jobs. The appropriate division of labor results in an effective and efficient workforce. Job Simplification The process of reducing the tasks each worker performs. Too much simplification and boredom results.
    11 : Job Design Job Enlargement Increasing the number of tasks for a given job to reduce boredom. Job Enrichment Increasing the degree of responsibility a worker has over a job can lead to increased worker involvement.
    12 : The Job Characteristics Model Figure 10.2 Source: Adapted from J. R. Hackman and G. R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980).
    13 : Grouping Jobs into Functions Functional Structure An organizational structure composed of all the departments that an organization requires to produce its goods or services. Advantages Encourages learning from others doing similar jobs. Easy for managers to monitor and evaluate workers. Disadvantages Difficult for departments to communicate with others. Preoccupation with own department and losing sight of organizational goals.
    14 : Divisional Structures Divisional Structure An organizational structure composed of separate business units within which are the functions that work together to produce a specific product for a specific customer Divisions create smaller, manageable parts of a firm. Divisions develop a business-level strategy to compete. Divisions have marketing, finance, and other functions. Functional managers report to divisional managers who then report to corporate management.
    15 : Types of Divisional Structures Product Structure Customers are served by self-contained divisions that handle a specific type of product or service. Allows functional managers to specialize in one product area Division managers become experts in their area Removes need for direct supervision of division by corporate managers Divisional management improves the use of resources
    16 : Types of Divisional Structures Geographic Structure Each regional or a country or area with customers with differing needs is served by a local self-contained division producing products that best meet those needs.
    17 : Types of Divisional Structures Global geographic structure Different divisions serve each world region when managers find different problems or demands across the globe. Generally, occurs when managers are pursuing a multi-domestic strategy
    18 : Types of Divisional Structures Market (Customer) Structure Each kind of customer is served by a self-contained division Global market (customer) structure Customers in different regions buy similar products so firms can locate manufacturing facilities and product distribution networks where they decide is best. Firms pursuing a global strategy will use this type of structure.
    19 : Matrix Design Structure Matrix Structure An organizational structure that simultaneously groups people and resources by function and product. Results in a complex network of superior-subordinate reporting relationships. The structure is very flexible and can respond rapidly to the need for change. Each employee has two bosses (functional manager and product manager) and possibly cannot satisfy both.
    20 : Product Team Design Structure Product Team Structure The members are permanently assigned to the team and empowered to bring a product to market. Avoids problems of two-way communication and the conflicting demands of functional and product team bosses. Cross-functional team is composed of a group of managers from different departments working together to perform organizational tasks.
    21 : Hybrid Structures Hybrid Structure The structure of a large organization that has many divisions an simultaneously uses many different organizational structures Managers can select the best structure for a particular division—one division may use a functional structure, another division may have a geographic structure. The ability to break a large organization into smaller units makes it easier to manage.
    22 : Coordinating Functions:Allocating Authority Authority The power to hold people accountable for their actions and to make decisions concerning the use of organizational resources. Hierarchy of Authority An organization’s chain of command, specifying the relative authority of each manager. Span of Control: refers to the number of workers a manager manages.

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