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    Add as Friendproject tiger

    by: Muthu

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    1 : ENGLISH PROJECT WORK TOPIC: TIGERS (Population and Species)
    2 : INTRODUCTION Tiger, largest member of the cat family and the only wild cat with striped fur. Perfectly designed predators, tigers possess beauty, grace, and awesome power. Their presence in the wild, revealed by a throaty roar or a track on a dusty trail, electrifies the forest and sends shivers down the spines of all who share its space. Humans admire tigers as much as they fear them, and the animals figure prominently in Asian myths, religions, arts, and imagination. Tigers were once found throughout the forested regions of tropical and temperate Asia. Excessive hunting and destruction of tiger habitat have now narrowed the tiger’s range to a few isolated patches throughout Asia. Many people have organized local and international conservation organizations to prevent tigers from becoming extinct.
    3 : TIGER
    4 : Among the 36 cat species, tigers are most closely related to lions, leopards, and jaguars. These cats evolved from a common ancestor that was probably similar to modern leopards or jaguars and lived more than 5 million years ago. The earliest fossils clearly identified as those of tigers are about 2 million years old. These fossils were found in central Asia, eastern and northern China, Siberia, Japan, Sumatra, and Java. Based on fossils dating from 300,000 to 10,000 years ago, some scientists think that tigers may have ranged into present-day Alaska via the Bering land bridge that once joined Alaska and Siberia during the last glaciations in the Pleistocene Epoch. Other scientists believe that the big cat fossils found in Alaska all belong to lions.
    5 : Scientists use a variety of methods to study the behavior of tigers and track their movements. Radio tracking was first used to track tigers in Nepal in 1973. In this method, a collar with an attached radio transmitter is placed around the neck of a tiger. Scientists monitor the radio transmissions as the tiger travels, tracking the tiger’s whereabouts to learn about its range, life history, and behaviors. More recently, scientists have set up camera traps that are triggered by an infrared beam. When a tiger crosses the infrared beam, the camera snaps a shot of the tiger, recording the date and time the photograph was taken. The tiger’s unique stripes help identify the animal, and when the same animal triggers other camera traps, the photo archives enable scientists to gather information about the tiger’s movements. This method helps scientists estimate tiger numbers in the wild.
    6 : Scientists estimate that at the beginning of the 20th century 100,000 tigers flourished throughout Asia, from eastern Russia and Korea through eastern and southern China, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and into Pakistan, with separate populations around the Caspian Sea and on the Indonesian islands of Bali, Java, and Sumatra. At the start of the 21st century only 5,000 to 7,000 tigers lived in the wild in just 14 Asian countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Nepal, North Korea, Russia, Sumatra, Thailand, and Vietnam. Tigers are now extinct in Bali, Java, and around the Caspian Sea, and nearly so in China and North Korea. Less than 20 percent of today’s tiger habitat is located in national parks or other protected areas, which means that the majority of the areas where tigers live could be lost to other uses, such as agriculture or urbanization.
    7 : Tigers are territorial—they live alone in large areas that they defend from other tigers. The ideal tiger territory is a large forested area with rich vegetation for cover, plentiful water to drink and cool off in, and abundant deer, swine, and other large mammals to eat. With these three essentials, tigers can thrive in diverse habitats and climates including hot, tropical rain forests in Sumatra and Southeast Asia; cool oak and pine forest in the Amur River Valley in far eastern Russia; tall grass jungles in India and Nepal; coastal mangrove forests in Bangladesh; and mountain slopes in Bhutan.
    8 : The Sumatran tiger, found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, is the smallest type of tiger. Females weigh 75 to 110 kg (165 to 240 lb), and males weigh 100 to 140 kg (220 to 310 lb). In recent years the demand for tiger parts across Southeast Asia has threatened the Sumatran tiger, whose skins, bones, and claws are used in folk remedies and as novelty displays.
    9 : In the past scientists classified tigers into eight subspecies based on variations in size, coat color, and striping. However, a re-evaluation of these physical characteristics and recent genetic studies show there is little reason to divide living tigers into separate subspecies. All tigers are nearly identical both genetically and physically. Some scientists suggest making a distinction between the island tigers (now found only in Sumatra) and the tigers that live in mainland Asia, since island tigers live in a different habitat without any opportunity to breed with another population of tigers. Over many generations, these isolated populations will likely evolve genetic differences from their mainland counterparts.
    10 : Bengal tigers, such as the two pictured here in India’s Kanha National Park in the state of Madhya Pradesh, are an endangered species. In 1974 patrol camps were established to decrease poaching (taking game or fish illegally) and protect the tigers.
    11 : Tiger The tiger(Panthera Tigris) is a member of a biological family of cats. Also called an apex predator the tiger occupies the top most spot in the jungle ecosystem. With no natural predator other than man, the tigers plays an important role in balance in its environment. In the ecosystem only the man are those who hunts the tigers for their skin, bones etc. In these days the hunting of tigers are increasing. Tigers are national animal of India and due to decreasing population of tigers Indian Government Had banned on the hunting of tigers. Governments are taking many steps to save this amazing animal. the biggest of the big cats
    12 : Tiger and the jungle Jungle inhabitants by the tiger rely on this predator to keep the population of herbivores in control. Without the tigers the population of the herbivores Would increase, resulting in overgrazing which in in turn upsets the delicate balance in the jungle ecosystem. Without the tiger, its habitat, the jungle, is also under threat.
    13 : Tiger story…. Tigers are believed to have originated in East Asia. From here they migrated In different direction and adapt to diverse habitants. In the process they evolved leading to changes in their characteristics, size, features and coat. Based on this differences tigers are classified into eight distinct subspecies.
    14 : Tigers Subspecies The Siberian tiger The Indochinese tiger The Bali tiger The Caspian tiger The South China tiger The Indian tiger The Javan tiger The Sumatran tiger
    15 : Tiger under threat Three of the eight subspecies of tiger are now extinct. The number of the remaining five are rapidly dwindling making this magnificent animal an endangered and threatened species. India, traditionally a safe habitat for the tiger, has seen a marked decline in numbers too. From 3642 tigers counted in 2002, the number has reduced tojust 1411 tigers in 2008. Human activities such as hunting, poaching,and clearing of forest for agriculture land are the main factors for The decline of tigers in India.
    16 : Tigers in the World
    17 : The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), an international environmental group, recently initiated a special program to curb illegal trade in tiger parts, taking advantage of the Chinese designation of 1998 as “the year of the tiger.” Wild tiger populations have declined from an estimated 100,000 individuals in the early 1900s to perhaps as few as 4800 individuals today. Tahree of eight subspecies of tigers are already extinct, and remaining populations are fragmented and declining. Habitat losses, hunting for sport, and trade are the key causes of tiger endangerment. However, strong laws and enforcement efforts in many nations have started to slow the tiger trade. For example, some tiger populations, including Siberian tigers in the Far East, have increased slightly in recent years.
    18 : The forests in the southern part of far eastern Russia are known for the Siberian tiger—the largest cat in the world—as well as leopards, bears, and deer. The steppe primarily contains rodents such as marmots and hamsters, but there are also a few species of hoofed animals, including antelope. The main beasts of prey are steppe polecats and Tatar foxes. Bird life includes cranes and eagles. The Caucasus region is particularly abundant in wildlife, including mountain goats, chamois, Caucasian deer, wild boars, porcupines, leopards, hyenas, jackals, squirrels, and bears. There is also a variety of game fowl, including black grouses, turkey hens, and stone partridges. Reptiles and amphibians are also numerous in the Caucasus region.
    19 : Save the Tiger Save the Tiger, motion picture about a businessman who considers committing arson to save his failing business. Jack Lemmon earned an Academy Award for his performance as the dress manufacturer Harry Stoner in this film, which was released in 1973. Stoner and his business partner (played by Jack Gilford) debate about whether they should burn their factory in order to collect the insurance money. Stoner tries to cope with his desperate economic situation and with the disintegration of his marriage. Director John G. Avildsen
    20 : Jack Lemmon (Harry Stoner) Jack Gilford (Phil Greene) Laurie Heineman (Myra) Normann Burton (Fred Mirrell) Patricia Smith (Janet Stoner) Thayer David (Charlie Robbins) Lara Parker (Margo) William Hansen (Meyer) Harvey Jason (Rico) Liv Lindeland (Ula) Eloise Hardt (Jackie) Janina (Dusty) Ned Glass (Sid Fivush) Pearl Shear (Cashier) Biff Elliot (Tiger petitioner) Ben Freedman (Taxi driver) Madeline Lee (Receptionist) Cast
    21 : Many traditional Chinese medicines use organs and tissues of endangered animals, including large mammals such as tigers, rhinoceroses, and bears. The crushed bones and other tissues of tigers, for example, are key ingredients of numerous traditional Chinese medicines that are used to treat ailments ranging from arthritis, to impotence, to acne. Tiger penis is prized as an aphrodisiac (sexual stimulant). From 1990 to 1992 China exported more than 27 million containers of pills, other medicines, and bottles of wine containing tiger tissues to 26 countries and territories.
    22 : Uzbekistan’s mixed topography provides divergent wildlife habitats. In the steppes the endangered saiga antelope can be found, as well as roe deer, wolves, foxes, and badgers. The desert monitor, a large lizard that can reach lengths of 1.6 m (5 ft), thrives in the Qyzylqum desert, along with a type of gazelle and a number of rodent species. The river deltas are home to wild boars, jackals, and deer, with a variety of pink deer living in the Amu Darya delta. The Turan (or Caspian) tiger is now extinct: The last one was killed in the Amu Darya delta in 1972. The endangered snow leopard, which has long been hunted illegally for its prized fur, lives in the eastern mountains. The mountains also are home to several types of mountain goat, including the Alpine ibex (characterized by enormous, back-curving horns), as well as lynx, wild boars, wolves, and brown bears.
    23 : Today most of the 37 species of wild cats are in decline. I call Peter Jackson, chairman of the cat specialist group of the World Conservation Union in Bougy, Switzerland, for a census. Cheetahs at around 10,000 (down from an estimated 15,000 in the early 1970s). Tigers down to 6,000 (from about 11,000 in the mid-1960s). One of the most fragile is the Iberian lynx, a native of Spain and Portugal. Perhaps only 1,200 remain of a population that possibly numbered in the tens of thousands.
    24 : The seeds of the Asian financial crisis were sown at least 20 years ago, as many Asian nations—Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and, later, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia—adopted market-friendly policies, opened their domestic markets, and courted foreign investment. This investment poured in. Once-poor nations found themselves awash in money, factories, jobs, rapid economic growth, and all the things that go with it: new roads and airports, soaring skyscrapers, good restaurants, and luxury hotels. The animals of the Austro-Malayan region are linked to Australia. Papua is home to the large, flightless cassowary bird and to many species of colorful birds of paradise.
    25 : Corbett National Park, national park in northern India, in Uttaranchal state. Established in 1936, it covers an area of 520 sq km (200 sq mi) in the Siwalik Range of the Sub-Himalayas. Its main purpose has been to protect the plant and animal life in the valley of the Ramganga River, especially the endangered Bengal tiger, of which there are now about 100 in the park, and the gharial, a species of fish-eating crocodile. The park also contains elephants, hyenas, jackals, bears, several species of deer and monkey, and more than 600 species of birds. Its vegetation includes elephant grass and sal trees on the valley floor, and silk cotton and kusum trees, orchids, tropical creepers, and bamboo on the hills.
    26 : Kanha National Park, national park in northern India, in Madhya Pradesh state. Established in 1955 and extended in 1961 and 1970, Kanha National Park now includes a tiger reserve and large buffer zone and covers 1,945 sq km (751 sq mi). It is an area of grassland, bamboo groves, and sal forests that supports 22 species of mammals, including tigers, leopards, chital (spotted deer), sambar (large, long-tailed deer), and barasingha (swamp deer), and about 200 species of birds. The Kanha Tiger Reserve was created within the park in 1973 as part of the nationwide Project Tiger initiated the same year by Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The number of tigers, an endangered species, and of several other animals, has increased in recent years. The park is closed during the summer monsoon season, but when it is open visitors can take elephant rides and other guided tours.
    27 : Bangladesh is rich in fauna, including 109 indigenous species of mammals, 295 types of birds, 119 kinds of reptiles, 19 different amphibians, and 200 varieties of marine and freshwater fish. The rhesus monkey is common, and gibbons and lemurs are also found. The Sundarbans area is one of the principal remaining domains of the endangered Bengal tiger; although the tiger is officially protected, illegal poaching is known to occur. Herds of elephants and many leopards inhabit the Chittagong Hill Tracts District. Other animals living in Bangladesh include mongoose, jackal, Bengal fox, wild boar, parakeet, kingfisher, vulture, and swamp crocodile.
    28 : A wide variety of native mammals, reptiles, birds, and insects inhabit Iran. Many species of mammals—including wolves, foxes, bears, mountain goats, red mountain sheep, rabbits, and gerbils—continue to thrive. Others—including Caspian tigers, Caspian seals, desert onagers, three species of deer, gazelles, and lynx—are endangered despite the establishment of special wildlife refuge areas and other government programs initiated to protect them. Some 323 species of birds inhabit Iran; more than 200 species are migratory birds that spend part of the year in other countries.
    29 : A wide variety of native mammals, reptiles, birds, and insects inhabit Iran. Many species of mammals—including wolves, foxes, bears, mountain goats, red mountain sheep, rabbits, and gerbils—continue to thrive. Others—including Caspian tigers, Caspian seals, desert onagers, three species of deer, gazelles, and lynx—are endangered despite the establishment of special wildlife refuge areas and other government programs initiated to protect them. Some 323 species of birds inhabit Iran; more than 200 species are migratory birds that spend part of the year in other countries.
    30 : Today hunting still poses a danger to some species, particularly animals such as elephants, rhinoceroses, and tigers, which fetch high prices on the black market for their tusks, horns, and other body parts. During the past 30 years alone, the population of black rhinos has dropped by over 95 percent, and the number of tigers has been reduced to about 5000. International efforts have helped to stem the trade in products from these animals, but without further intervention, their future as wild species remains in doubt.
    31 : To help preserve this big cat, spread the message of saving the tiger. Increase awareness of the need to conserve tigers habitats. Volunteer or contribute to a recognized organization that works towards protecting the tiger and remember that the future of this species now depend upon us. The Ends

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