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    by: sukhi

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    1 : Basics Of Solar Cell Presented By :- Nikhil kumar
    2 : About solar cell. Generation of solar cell. Types of semiconductor used in solar cell. Photo Voltaic Effect. Solar cell Efficiency factor. Equivalent circuit of Solar cell. I-V characteristics of Zno. Losses in solar cell. Opportunities for Improvement. Applications Conclusion.
    3 : Solar Cell A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Solar Cell is made of monocrystalline silicon wafer. Treated to be positive on one side and negative on the other. When light energy hits the cell, electrons are knocked loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material. If electrical conductors are attached to the positive and negative sides, forming an electrical circuit, the electrons can be captured in the form of an electric current.
    4 : First Generation :First generation cells consist of large-area, high quality and single junction devices and reducing production cost. Second Generation: Second generation materials have been developed to address energy requirements and production costs of solar cells.As vapour deposition , electroplating and Ultrasonic Nozzles,they reduce high temperature processing significantly. Third Generation :Third generation technologies aim to enhance poor electrical performance of second generation (thin-film technologies) while maintaining very low production costs.
    5 : Inorganic semiconductor Organic semiconductor
    6 : Photovoltaic Effect Photovoltaic effect is generated photons hit a semi-conductor Material with a higher energy than the gap between its Valence andConduction bands. Free electrons move on one side (n-side) while holes move on the other side (p-side) A difference of potential is created between n-side and p-side allowing current through a load outside of the semi-conductor.
    7 : • Solar panels, inverters and other major equipment must be new and meet the latest safety standards • Each project must be pre-approved by the Program Manager and must meet requirements for interconnection of distributed generation • Every installation must be locally permitted and must pass inspection by the local jurisdiction having authority • Systems are required to meet an 80% of optimal design threshold in order to qualify for an incentive • Systems must be designed to offset customer consumption. INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
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    10 : Solar cell Efficiency factor Energy conversion efficiency Quantum efficiency Maximum power point Fill factor
    11 : Characteristic of solar cell Effect of physical size Cell temperature Series resistance Shunt resistance
    12 : High Efficiency Cells Monocrystaline si Polycrystaline si a)Multiple junction solar cell b) Thin film solar cells
    13 : MonoCrystalline silicon solar cell Silicon cell development.
    14 : Silicon solar cell device manufacture Solar cell are semiconductor device they share many of the same processing an manufacturing technique as other semiconductor device such as computer and memory chip Antireflection coating which increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell are typically next applied over the past decade silicon nitride has gradually replace titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating of choice because of its excellent surface passivation quality
    15 : Junction(ZnO based diode) 1.Introduction 2.Structure 3.Characterstics
    16 : Junction(ZnO based diode) Reflection Maximal generated voltage Maximal current
    17 : Light Absorbing Material Bulk film Crystalline silicon Thin film 1.Cadmium telluride solar cell 2.Copper indium selenide 3.Gallium arsenide multi junction 4.Light absorbing dyes 5.Organic polymer solar cell 6.Silicon thin films(nano crystalline solar cell)
    18 : 1) Losses for the Top Solar Cell a) Optical Losses b) Electrical Losses 2) Losses for the Bottom Solar Cell a) Optical Losses Losses in cell:
    19 : Opportunities For Improvement Commercial Cell. 1.Efficiency-15% 2.Wafers-CZ 3.Current value of available products 11%. Laboratory Cell. 1.Efficiency-24% 2.Wafers-FZ 3.Current value of available products 19%.
    20 : Application of solar cell Solar cells produce Electricity and mainly used as Renewable Energy. It can be used in Residential areas, government buildings. Average output is 1150-1400 kilowatt hours annually per KW installed Solar Cells Produce Clean amount of electricity,and it can be easily taken from the grid.
    21 : Advantages and Disadvantages. Advantages:- 1.Solar cell having low Running cost. 2.No Carbondiaoxide Emission to add the Green House Effect. 3. Equipments having long life. 4.Very Good feasible cell efficiency. Disadvantages:- 1.The initial cost of solar cell is very high. 2.The output is independent on weather condition and the day timing.
    22 : Current research on materials & devices Silicon processing Thin film processing Metamorphic multijunction solar cell Polymers processing Transparent conductors Photovoltaic thermal hybrid
    23 : FUTURE EFFICIENCY Technical aspects: The majority of experts have responded that the efficiency of the photovoltaic cells will be 95% of the theoretical efficiency sometime in the period 2020-2050. A flat crystalline silicon module will reach to 23 % of efficiency by the year 2050. The crystalline silicon photovoltaic panels are already reliable (reliability more than 98%). According to the R&D status, experts thought that USA is in the first position and Europe and Japan are in the second and third position respectively. The expectations of the experts for the R&D status of these three regions are that they are going to achieve the same R&D level by the year 2020.
    24 : Zinc oxide/ monocrystalline Silicon solar cell is realized by spraying 0.2 m Zinc acetate dissolved in a solvent composed of 80% Hydrogen-oxide,20%Acetate.The Zno/Si solar cell with an interfacial Sio2 layer formed by oxidation shows a considerable degradation of its performance.To minimize cell degradation a layer of ITO is deposited on the Zno surface.The ITO layer almost prevent diffusion of atmospheric oxygen to Si wafer which allowing the increase of the intentionally formed Sio2 interfacial layer.
    25 : THANKS….  

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