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Add as Friendunix ppt unix tutorial ppt introduction to unix ppt unix basics ppt unix commands ppt

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1 : Welcome to Unix Crafted by the CSUA at Berkeley http://csua.berkeley.edu Presented 8/29/2002
2 : Redistribution The authors (nor anyone else) provides no warranty or claim of accuracy of this document. Use at your own risk. You may use this document in whole or part according to the terms of the GPL. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html for details.
3 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
4 : What is it and where do you get it? An operating system used on everything from servers to embedded systems. To you, probably a prompt: ~> type stuff here You get a temporary account when you take a CS class. Get a (more) permanent account from the OCF or CSUA. Or buy a Mac.
5 : If you know only one thing, know how to RTFM. ~>man command gives you help on that command. ~>apropos keyword tells you all man pages that contain keyword.
6 : How to get help. Come to the CSUA office, 343 Soda. HKN is next door the CSUA. Go to the OCF in the MLK Heller Lounge when someone is holding staff hours. Post your question to a newsgroup (like your class newsgroup). Hit the man pages/web first !
7 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
8 : Files and Directories:Naming something gives you power over it.
9 : Absolute Addressing
10 : Addressing relative to your home dir.
11 : Addressing relative to your current dir.
12 : File system commands pwd - report your current directory cd - change your current directory ls -list contents of directory cp - copy mv - move (or rename) rm -delete a file mkdir -make a directory rmdir -remove an empty directory
13 : getting recursive remove a directory and its contents: rm -r copy a directory and its contents: cp -r
14 : File permissions. There are 3 kinds of people in the world: you (user), your friends (group) and everyone else (other). Each sort of person may or may not be able to read, write, or execute a file. >ls -l .forward -rw-r--r-- 1 darin csua 23 Jan 23 2002 .forward >ls -l .cshrc.local -rwxr-xr-- 1 darin csua 2988 May 19 00:48 .cshrc.local*
15 : executing “executing” a file means running it as a program. “executing” a directory means setting your current directory to it using cd.
16 : Changing File Permissions make a file readable to your friends: chmod g+r change who owns a file: chown change to which group the file belongs: chgrp
17 : touch look at the full listing again: >ls -l .forward -rw-r--r-- 1 darin csua 23 Jan 23 2002 .forward Each file has a date stamp of when it was modified. Use touch to set the timestamp to the current clock. touch Touch creates the file if it didn’t exist beforehand. You can only touch a file to which you can write.
18 : Symbolic Links use ln -s to create a symbolic link to a file. >ls -l .forward* -rw-r--r-- 1 darin csua .forward lrwxr-xr-x 1 darin csua .forward.link@ -> .forward The first “l” tells you that it’s a symbolic link. Symbolic links can be used as if it were its target.
19 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
20 : what’s a shell? The shell is the program that runs when you log in. It prints the prompt and reads what you type, invokes programs, etc. your window to the Unix world. use “chsh ” to change your shell
21 : File Globbing some commands can work on many files at once: ~> rm file1 file2 file27 Use * to match any number of unknown characters ~> rm file* Use ? to match one unknown character. ~> rm file?
22 : (un)aliasing create shortcuts for yourself ~>alias ll “ls -la” Use alias with no arguments to discover current aliases ~>alias rm rm -i ll ls -la Type “unalias rm” to remove alias.
23 : shell variables, echo (tcsh) ~>setenv BOB “joe” (tcsh) ~>printenv BOB joe (tcsh) ~>echo $BOB joe
24 : PATH: a very important shell variable >echo $PATH /home/d/da/darin/bin:/opt/local/bin:/opt/local/bin/pbmutils:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/opt/SUNWspro/bin:/usr/ccs/bin:/opt/local/X11/bin:/usr/dt/bin:/usr/openwin/bin:/opt/local/gnu/bin:/opt/local/games/bin:/usr/ucb:./ If a program (like ls) is in one directory found in your path, then typing it (~>ls ) will execute it. Otherwise you can type the full absolute address to execute a program (~>/usr/bin/ls )
25 : finding things in your PATH. Type “which ” to find the location of the program which would be run when you type . If you don’t remember if it was chgrp or chgroup, type “ch” to get a list of commands that starts with ch. when all else fails, use “find” to find a file. ~>find -name “*.doc”
26 : Other useful pre-defined shell variables HOST what computer you’re logged into PAGER program used display man pages PWD current directory GROUP what group you’re in USER your login
27 : Shell scripts. If you have a bunch of commands you’d like to automate, you can put them on separate lines of a file. Then type “source ” to run the script. If the first line of your script looks like #! then you can make the script executable. When it executes, it uses to interpret the contents of the script.
28 : Login scripts Most people have a script that executes when they log in. It is commonly used to set up one’s PATH and aliases. Ask someone to help you start your own login script.
29 : screen is your friend You can use the program “screen” to run several shells from one window. create a new shell by pressing c switch shells by pressing use “ d” to detach a session and come back to it later.
30 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
31 : Your Options Abstinence (switch majors, unplug your computer) monogamy (use only one computer, do not use network) protection (also known as encryption)
32 : What not to use. telnet, ftp, rlogin all your data (including your password) is transmitted plain text over the network. from library machines you can use the java ssh client from a web browser.
33 : using ssh keys use “ssh-keygen” to generate a public/private set of keys. You keep the private key and append the public key to authorized_keys. You can now log in using either your password or the private key file.
34 : using secure copy: scp copy local to remote scp user@machine: copy remote to local scp user@machine:
35 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
36 : the program mail “mail”: useful for sending: >mail darin@csua Subject: hello Cc: hi there this is a message .
37 : other console based options elm - quick and simple, easy to use, but doesn’t handle attachments very well. pine - more complete. the “standard” mutt - most modern/complex.
38 : accessing mail remotely netscape, outlook, eudora, and others can get at your mail using POP or IMAP. POP takes the messages off the server to your local computer. IMAP only reads headers, but leaves mail how it is on the server. Works well if you wish to use console based email. ALWAYS use SSL (encryption).
39 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
40 : vi is an editor available on all decent Unix systems. Developed at Berkeley. Has two modes: command and insert. In insert mode you can type normally. Press escape to get into command mode. In command mode each letter is a command. hjkl ? ????
41 : pico - the pine composer the simplest visual editor available on most Unix systems. all possible commands displayed at bottom of screen. (control-somethings) no real surprises
42 : emacs Always has one major mode running, potentially several minor modes. stands for editing macros - designed by and for lisp programmers.
43 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
44 : STD* All terminal programs have: standard output, which is usually your screen standard input, which is usually your keyboard standard error, which is also the screen
45 : redirect output to a file with > If you type who at the prompt, you will get a list of who is logged into the system. If you type who >f, a file named f will be created and the standard output of who will be placed in that file instead of to your screen.
46 : > vers >> By default, who >f will overwrite the file f. Use who >>f to append to f rather than overwriting it.
47 : redirecting input from a file with < The program sort will sort its standard input and then print it on standard out. To sort the lines of file1 and display: sort < file1 To sort the lines of file1 and save in file2: sort < file1 > file2
48 : The output of one program can be the input to another. who | sort The output of who is sorted and shown on your terminal screen.
49 : grep grep shows only those lines containing its search pattern. To see all lines in a file containing ‘bob’: grep ‘bob’ < file1
50 : The cat command the arguments to cat are concatenated together and displayed on stdout. To view a file: cat file1 if no arguments, cat puts on stdout whatever you type on stdin, so this does the same thing: cat < file1
51 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
52 : printers have stupid names The printers downstairs are named “lw274”. The printer in 330 is called “lw330”.
53 : how to print a .ps file syntax: lp -D example: lp -Dlw330 myfile.ps
54 : how to print a .pdf file convert it to .ps first!!! use the pdf2ps utility program. pdf2ps input.pdf output.ps
55 : how to print other file types Convert them to .ps first!!! The program a2ps (anything to .ps) works most of the time.
56 : How to check the printer’s queue. syntax: lpq -P example: lpq -Plw330
57 : How to cancel your print job. Type “cancel”.
58 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
59 : To start a process in the background, use “&”. example: big_program > output & big_program will not have input!
60 : managing jobs To suspend the currently active program, use . To return to the program you just suspended, type “fg” To put the program you just suspended in the background, type “bg”
61 : To see a list of your programs running, type “ps”. >ps PID TTY TIME CMD 866 pts/1 00:00:00 tcsh 872 pts/1 00:00:00 ps
62 : use kill to end a process >ps PID TTY TIME CMD 866 pts/1 00:00:00 tcsh 874 pts/1 00:00:00 cat 875 pts/1 00:00:00 ps >kill 874 [1] Terminated cat
63 : kill -9 If kill doesn’t end your process, use kill -9
64 : Outline I. getting help II. the file system III. the shell IV. safe computer sex V. email options VI. and lesser editors VII. input and output redirection VIII.printing IX. process management X. X
65 : cutting and pasting Highlight some text in any window. Hit the middle mouse button in another window. The highlighted text appears. There is no “saving to the clipboard” step as in Microsoft’s Windows or MacOS.
66 : Changing your fonts. in xterm edit -->preferences --> fonts in netscape.
67 : Changing your window manager. Your ~/.xsession gets run when you log into X windows, the last line sets which window manager you are going to use. You probably want someone to set up your X configuration for you the first time.
68 : Using X windows at home on a MS-Windows machine. You need to get a program called a program called an “Xserver”. Exceed works well and is free for academic use. You must allow X-forwarding through your ssh client. Putty is good for this.
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